Use a mid-stream, early morning sample. Make sure you dip the entire strip in the urine for a few seconds, then wait up to two minutes for all the results. They are as follows:
Leukocytes: usually indicate infection, e.g. cystitis and urethritis.
Nitrite: A UTI associated with a Gram-negative pathogen such as E. coli.
Urobilinogen: Obstructive jaundice or a problem with gut flora, possibly due to antibiotics.
Protein: Often contamination, sometimes infection, sometimes protein being shed from the bloodstream, which can cause nephrotic or nephritic syndromes.
pH: Varies quite a lot naturally. The kidneys and lungs together secrete hydrogen and hydroxide ions to balance the pH in the body.
Blood: Haematuria can be harmless but may indicate physical trauma and also provide nuclei for the formation of kidney stones.
Specific gravity: Also varies, but a fixed low specific gravity can result from insufficient vasopressin secretion, insensitivity to vasopressin (also known as ADH or anti-diuretic hormone) or metaplasia of cells in the kidney during healing, reducing its ability to re-absorb water. All of these together are referred to as diabetes insipidus, which has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus except for the increase in urination.
The main functions of the kidney are removal of waste products, the re-absorption of water, the secretion of hormones to control blood pressure and the maintenance of acid-base balance.
Ketones: always mean something other than sugar is being broken down to provide energy, so either diabetes or starvation on the whole.
Bilirubin: a bile pigment.
Glucose: Often but not always indicates diabetes mellitus. It means the glucose is over the renal threshold but this can happen as a result of a high basal metabolic rate or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).